HPV infection is a viral infection that commonly causes skin or mucous membrane growths (warts).

HPV infection is a viral infection that commonly causes skin or mucous membrane growths (warts). There are more than 100 varieties of human papillomavirus (HPV). Some types of HPV infection cause warts, and some can cause different types of cancer.

Most HPV infections don’t lead to cancer. But some types of genital HPV can cause cancer of the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina (cervix). Other types of cancers, including cancers of the anus, penis, vagina, vulva and back of the throat (oropharyngeal), have been linked to HPV infection.

These infections are often transmitted sexually or through other skin-to-skin contact. Vaccines can help protect against the strains of HPV most likely to cause genital warts or cervical cancer.


In most cases, your body’s immune system defeats an HPV infection before it creates warts. When warts do appear, they vary in appearance depending on which kind of HPV is involved:

  • Genital warts. These appear as flat lesions, small cauliflower-like bumps or tiny stemlike protrusions. In women, genital warts appear mostly on the vulva but can also occur near the anus, on the cervix or in the vagina.In men, genital warts appear on the penis and scrotum or around the anus. Genital warts rarely cause discomfort or pain, though they may itch or feel tender.
  • Common warts. Common warts appear as rough, raised bumps and usually occur on the hands and fingers. In most cases, common warts are simply unsightly, but they can also be painful or susceptible to injury or bleeding.
  • Plantar warts. Plantar warts are hard, grainy growths that usually appear on the heels or balls of your feet. These warts might cause discomfort.
  • Flat warts. Flat warts are flat-topped, slightly raised lesions. They can appear anywhere, but children usually get them on the face and men tend to get them in the beard area. Women tend to get them on the legs.

Cervical cancer

Nearly all cervical cancers are caused by HPV infections, but cervical cancer may take 20 years or longer to develop after an HPV infection. The HPV infection and early cervical cancer typically don’t cause noticeable symptoms. Getting vaccinated against HPV infection is your best protection from cervical cancer.

Because early cervical cancer doesn’t cause symptoms, it’s vital that women have regular screening tests to detect any precancerous changes in the cervix that might lead to cancer. Current guidelines recommend that women ages 21 to 29 have a Pap test every three years.

Women ages 30 to 65 are advised to continue having a Pap test every three years, or every five years if they also get the HPV DNA test at the same time. Women over 65 can stop testing if they’ve had three normal Pap tests in a row, or two HPV DNA and Pap tests with no abnormal results.

When to see a doctor

If you or your child has warts of any kind that cause embarrassment, discomfort or pain, seek advice from your doctor.


HPV infection occurs when the virus enters your body, usually through a cut, abrasion or small tear in your skin. The virus is transferred primarily by skin-to-skin contact.

Genital HPV infections are contracted through sexual intercourse, anal sex and other skin-to-skin contact in the genital region. Some HPV infections that result in oral or upper respiratory lesions are contracted through oral sex.

If you’re pregnant and have an HPV infection with genital warts, it’s possible your baby may get the infection. Rarely, the infection may cause a noncancerous growth in the baby’s voice box (larynx).

Warts are contagious. They can spread through direct contact with a wart. Warts can also spread when someone touches something that already touched a wart.

Risk factors

HPV infections are common. Risk factors for HPV infection include:

  • Number of sexual partners. The more sexual partners you have, the more likely you are to contract a genital HPV infection. Having sex with a partner who has had multiple sex partners also increases your risk.
  • Age. Common warts occur mostly in children. Genital warts occur most often in adolescents and young adults.
  • Weakened immune systems. People who have weakened immune systems are at greater risk of HPV infections. Immune systems can be weakened by HIV/AIDS or by immune system-suppressing drugs used after organ transplants.
  • Damaged skin. Areas of skin that have been punctured or opened are more prone to develop common warts.
  • Personal contact. Touching someone’s warts or not wearing protection before contacting surfaces that have been exposed to HPV — such as public showers or swimming pools — might increase your risk of HPV infection.


  • Oral and upper respiratory lesions. Some HPV infections cause lesions on your tongue, tonsils, soft palate, or within your larynx and nose.
  • Cancer. Certain strains of HPV can cause cervical cancer. These strains might also contribute to cancers of the genitals, anus, mouth and upper respiratory tract.


Common warts

It’s difficult to prevent HPV infections that cause common warts. If you have a common wart, you can prevent the spread of the infection and formation of new warts by not picking at a wart and not biting your nails.

Plantar warts

To reduce the risk of contracting HPV infections that cause plantar warts, wear shoes or sandals in public pools and locker rooms.

Genital warts

You can reduce your risk of developing genital warts and other HPV-related genital lesions by:

  • Being in a mutually monogamous sexual relationship
  • Reducing your number of sex partners
  • Using a latex condom, which can reduce your risk of HPV transmission

HPV vaccines

Gardasil 9 is an HPV vaccine approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and can be used for males and females to protect against cervical cancer and genital warts.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HPV vaccination for girls and boys ages 11 and 12, although it can be given as early as age 9. It’s ideal for girls and boys to receive the vaccine before they have sexual contact and are exposed to HPV. Research has shown that receiving the vaccine at a young age isn’t linked to an earlier start of sexual activity.

Once someone is infected with HPV, the vaccine might not be as effective or might not work at all. Also, response to the vaccine is better at younger ages than older ones. But, if given before someone is infected, the vaccine can prevent most cases of cervical cancer.

The CDC recommends that all 11- and 12-year-olds receive two doses of HPV vaccine at least six months apart. Younger adolescents ages 9 and 10 and teens ages 13 and 14 can also receive vaccination on the updated two-dose schedule. Research has shown that the two-dose schedule is effective for children under 15.

Teens and young adults who begin the vaccine series later, at ages 15 through 26, should continue to receive three doses of the vaccine.

The CDC recommends catch-up HPV vaccinations for all people through age 26 who aren’t adequately vaccinated.


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Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve.

Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve. The optic nerve sends visual information from your eye to your brain and is vital for good vision. Damage to the optic nerve is often related to high pressure in your eye. But glaucoma can happen even with normal eye pressure.

Glaucoma can occur at any age but is more common in older adults. It is one of the leading causes of blindness for people over the age of 60.

Many forms of glaucoma have no warning signs. The effect is so gradual that you may not notice a change in vision until the condition is in its later stages.

It’s important to have regular eye exams that include measurements of your eye pressure. If glaucoma is recognized early, vision loss can be slowed or prevented. If you have glaucoma, you’ll need treatment or monitoring for the rest of your life.


The symptoms of glaucoma depend on the type and stage of your condition.

Open-angle glaucoma

  • No symptoms in early stages
  • Gradually, patchy blind spots in your side vision. Side vision also is known as peripheral vision
  • In later stages, difficulty seeing things in your central vision

Acute angle-closure glaucoma

  • Severe headache
  • Severe eye pain
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Blurred vision
  • Halos or colored rings around lights
  • Eye redness

Normal-tension glaucoma

  • No symptoms in early stages
  • Gradually, blurred vision
  • In later stages, loss of side vision

Glaucoma in children

  • A dull or cloudy eye (infants)
  • Increased blinking (infants)
  • Tears without crying (infants)
  • Blurred vision
  • Nearsightedness that gets worse
  • Headache

Pigmentary glaucoma

  • Halos around lights
  • Blurred vision with exercise
  • Gradual loss of side vision

When to see a doctor

If you experience symptoms that come on suddenly, you may have acute angle-closure glaucoma. Symptoms include severe headache and severe eye pain. You need treatment as soon as possible. Go to an emergency room or call an eye doctor’s (ophthalmologist’s) office immediately.


Glaucoma develops when the optic nerve becomes damaged. As this nerve gradually deteriorates, blind spots develop in your vision. For reasons that doctors don’t fully understand, this nerve damage is usually related to increased pressure in the eye.

Elevated eye pressure happens as the result of a buildup of fluid that flows throughout the inside of the eye. This fluid also is known as the aqueous humor. It usually drains through a tissue located at the angle where the iris and cornea meet. This tissue also is called the trabecular meshwork. The cornea is important to vision because it lets light into the eye. When the eye makes too much fluid or the drainage system doesn’t work properly, eye pressure may increase.

Open-angle glaucoma

This is the most common form of glaucoma. The drainage angle formed by the iris and cornea remains open. But other parts of the drainage system don’t drain properly. This may lead to a slow, gradual increase in eye pressure.

Angle-closure glaucoma

This form of glaucoma occurs when the iris bulges. The bulging iris partially or completely blocks the drainage angle. As a result, fluid can’t circulate through the eye and pressure increases. Angle-closure glaucoma may occur suddenly or gradually.

Normal-tension glaucoma

No one knows the exact reason why the optic nerve becomes damaged when eye pressure is normal. The optic nerve may be sensitive or experience less blood flow. This limited blood flow may be caused by the buildup of fatty deposits in the arteries or other conditions that damage circulation. The buildup of fatty deposits in the arteries also is known as atherosclerosis.

Glaucoma in children

A child may be born with glaucoma or develop it in the first few years of life. Blocked drainage, injury or an underlying medical condition may cause optic nerve damage.

Pigmentary glaucoma

In pigmentary glaucoma, small pigment granules flake off from the iris and block or slow fluid drainage from the eye. Activities such as jogging sometimes stir up the pigment granules. That leads to a deposit of pigment granules on tissue located at the angle where the iris and cornea meet. The granule deposits cause an increase in pressure.

Glaucoma tends to run in families. In some people, scientists have identified genes related to high eye pressure and optic nerve damage.

Risk factors

Glaucoma can damage vision before you notice any symptoms. So be aware of these risk factors:

  • High internal eye pressure, also known as intraocular pressure
  • Age over 55
  • Black, Asian or Hispanic heritage
  • Family history of glaucoma
  • Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, migraines, high blood pressure and sickle cell anemia
  • Corneas that are thin in the center
  • Extreme nearsightedness or farsightedness
  • Eye injury or certain types of eye surgery
  • Taking corticosteroid medicines, especially eye drops, for a long time

Some people have narrow drainage angles, putting them at increased risk of angle-closure glaucoma.


These steps may help detect and manage glaucoma in its early stages. That may help to prevent vision loss or slow its progress.

  • Get regular eye examinations. Regular comprehensive eye exams can help detect glaucoma in its early stages, before significant damage occurs. As a general rule, the American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends a comprehensive eye exam every 5 to 10 years if you’re under 40 years old; every 2 to 4 years if you’re 40 to 54 years old; every 1 to 3 years if you’re 55 to 64 years old; and every 1 to 2 years if you’re older than 65.If you’re at risk of glaucoma, you’ll need more frequent screening. Ask your health care provider to recommend the right screening schedule for you.
  • Know your family’s eye health history. Glaucoma tends to run in families. If you’re at increased risk, you may need more frequent screening.
  • Wear eye protection. Serious eye injuries can lead to glaucoma. Wear eye protection when using power tools or playing sports.
  • Take prescribed eye drops regularly. Glaucoma eye drops can significantly reduce the risk that high eye pressure will progress to glaucoma. Use eye drops as prescribed by your health care provider even if you have no symptoms.