BGMI Unban Date 2023: Check Whether KRAFTON revealed any unban date or not.

The long wait for the return of the popular Battle Royale title, Battlegrounds Mobile India aka BGMI is likely to get over…

The long wait for the return of the popular Battle Royale title, Battlegrounds Mobile India aka BGMI is likely to get over very soon. A Report from News18 recently popped up into the scenes, mentioning a decision that has already been made to lift the ban on the title. The same report also suggests that the Government of India would recheck the title after 3 months (following its ban) with the title going through the necessary changes. So, the article will cover if KRAFTON has revealed any unban date or not. 

Latest Unban News around Battlegrounds Mobile India 

The recent rumors around Battlegrounds Mobile India intensified with several content creators making bold claims as well as reports indicating a possible return. As mentioned earlier, a report from News18 yesterday exploded the internet, which shared a big update on the possible unban of the title. As per the report, in a meeting, a decision has been made to lift the ban on BGMI with certain changes. However, GOI will have a close look at the title for at least three months, checking whether the title would comply with the Government’s terms and conditions.

Check whether KRAFTON has revealed any unban date or not

As of now, the developers of the title, Battlegrounds Mobile India, KRAFTON have not revealed any unban date of the title. The earlier mentioned ones are only reports. Hence, gamers should wait for the official statement from either KRAFTON or the Government of India.

BGMI is one of the most popular Battle Royale titles in India and gamers have been eagerly waiting for the return for quite some time. Hence, the excitement around the unban will always be high. So, we have to wait for a few more days if not weeks to have any clarity on the same.

Arthritis (joint pain and stiffness which typically worsen with age)

Arthritis is the swelling and tenderness of one or more joints. The main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness, which typically worsen with age. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Osteoarthritis causes cartilage — the hard, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones where they form a joint — to break down. Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease in which the immune system attacks the joints, beginning with the lining of joints.

Uric acid crystals, which form when there’s too much uric acid in your blood, can cause gout. Infections or underlying disease, such as psoriasis or lupus, can cause other types of arthritis.

Treatments vary depending on the type of arthritis. The main goals of arthritis treatments are to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.


The most common signs and symptoms of arthritis involve the joints. Depending on the type of arthritis, signs and symptoms may include:

  • Pain
  • Stiffness
  • Swelling
  • Redness
  • Decreased range of motion


The two main types of arthritis — osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis — damage joints in different ways.


The most common type of arthritis, osteoarthritis involves wear-and-tear damage to a joint’s cartilage — the hard, slick coating on the ends of bones where they form a joint. Cartilage cushions the ends of the bones and allows nearly frictionless joint motion, but enough damage can result in bone grinding directly on bone, which causes pain and restricted movement. This wear and tear can occur over many years, or it can be hastened by a joint injury or infection.

Osteoarthritis also causes changes in the bones and deterioration of the connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and hold the joint together. If cartilage in a joint is severely damaged, the joint lining may become inflamed and swollen.

Rheumatoid arthritis

In rheumatoid arthritis, the body’s immune system attacks the lining of the joint capsule, a tough membrane that encloses all the joint parts. This lining (synovial membrane) becomes inflamed and swollen. The disease process can eventually destroy cartilage and bone within the joint.

Risk factors

Risk factors for arthritis include:

  • Family history. Some types of arthritis run in families, so you may be more likely to develop arthritis if your parents or siblings have the disorder.
  • Age. The risk of many types of arthritis — including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout — increases with age.
  • Your sex. Women are more likely than men to develop rheumatoid arthritis, while most of the people who have gout, another type of arthritis, are men.
  • Previous joint injury. People who have injured a joint, perhaps while playing a sport, are more likely to eventually develop arthritis in that joint.
  • Obesity. Carrying excess pounds puts stress on joints, particularly your knees, hips and spine. People with obesity have a higher risk of developing arthritis.


Severe arthritis, particularly if it affects your hands or arms, can make it difficult for you to do daily tasks. Arthritis of weight-bearing joints can keep you from walking comfortably or sitting up straight. In some cases, joints may gradually lose their alignment and shape.

Infant Jaundice (overview,Symptoms,When to see Doctor…)


Infant jaundice is yellow discoloration of a newborn baby’s skin and eyes. Infant jaundice occurs because the baby’s blood contains an excess of bilirubin (bil-ih-ROO-bin), a yellow pigment of red blood cells.

Infant jaundice is a common condition, particularly in babies born before 38 weeks’ gestation (preterm babies) and some breast-fed babies. Infant jaundice usually occurs because a baby’s liver isn’t mature enough to get rid of bilirubin in the bloodstream. In some babies, an underlying disease may cause infant jaundice.

Most infants born between 35 weeks’ gestation and full term need no treatment for jaundice. Rarely, an unusually high blood level of bilirubin can place a newborn at risk of brain damage, particularly in the presence of certain risk factors for severe jaundice.


Yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes — the main sign of infant jaundice — usually appears between the second and fourth day after birth.

To check for infant jaundice, press gently on your baby’s forehead or nose. If the skin looks yellow where you pressed, it’s likely your baby has mild jaundice. If your baby doesn’t have jaundice, the skin color should simply look slightly lighter than its normal color for a moment.

Examine your baby in good lighting conditions, preferably in natural daylight.

When to see a doctor

Most hospitals have a policy of examining babies for jaundice before discharge. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that newborns be examined for jaundice during routine medical checks and at least every eight to 12 hours while in the hospital.

Your baby should be examined for jaundice between the third and seventh day after birth, when bilirubin levels usually peak. If your baby is discharged earlier than 72 hours after birth, make a follow-up appointment to look for jaundice within two days of discharge.

The following signs or symptoms may indicate severe jaundice or complications from excess bilirubin. Call your doctor if:

  • Your baby’s skin becomes more yellow
  • The skin on your baby’s the abdomen, arms or legs looks yellow
  • The whites of your baby’s eyes look yellow
  • Your baby seems listless or sick or is difficult to awaken
  • Your baby isn’t gaining weight or is feeding poorly
  • Your baby makes high-pitched cries
  • Your baby develops any other signs or symptoms that concern you


Excess bilirubin (hyperbilirubinemia) is the main cause of jaundice. Bilirubin, which is responsible for the yellow color of jaundice, is a normal part of the pigment released from the breakdown of “used” red blood cells.

Newborns produce more bilirubin than adults do because of greater production and faster breakdown of red blood cells in the first few days of life. Normally, the liver filters bilirubin from the bloodstream and releases it into the intestinal tract. A newborn’s immature liver often can’t remove bilirubin quickly enough, causing an excess of bilirubin. Jaundice due to these normal newborn conditions is called physiologic jaundice, and it typically appears on the second or third day of life.

Other causes

An underlying disorder may cause infant jaundice. In these cases, jaundice often appears much earlier or much later than does the more common form of infant jaundice. Diseases or conditions that can cause jaundice include:

  • Internal bleeding (hemorrhage)
  • An infection in your baby’s blood (sepsis)
  • Other viral or bacterial infections
  • An incompatibility between the mother’s blood and the baby’s blood
  • A liver malfunction
  • Biliary atresia, a condition in which the baby’s bile ducts are blocked or scarred
  • An enzyme deficiency
  • An abnormality of your baby’s red blood cells that causes them to break down rapidly

Risk factors

Major risk factors for jaundice, particularly severe jaundice that can cause complications, include:

  • Premature birth. A baby born before 38 weeks of gestation may not be able to process bilirubin as quickly as full-term babies do. Premature babies also may feed less and have fewer bowel movements, resulting in less bilirubin eliminated through stool.
  • Significant bruising during birth. Newborns who become bruised during delivery gets bruises from the delivery may have higher levels of bilirubin from the breakdown of more red blood cells.
  • Blood type. If the mother’s blood type is different from her baby’s, the baby may have received antibodies through the placenta that cause abnormally rapid breakdown of red blood cells.
  • Breast-feeding. Breast-fed babies, particularly those who have difficulty nursing or getting enough nutrition from breast-feeding, are at higher risk of jaundice. Dehydration or a low caloric intake may contribute to the onset of jaundice. However, because of the benefits of breast-feeding, experts still recommend it. It’s important to make sure your baby gets enough to eat and is adequately hydrated.
  • Race. Studies show that babies of East Asian ancestry have an increased risk of developing jaundice.


High levels of bilirubin that cause severe jaundice can result in serious complications if not treated.

Acute bilirubin encephalopathy

Bilirubin is toxic to cells of the brain. If a baby has severe jaundice, there’s a risk of bilirubin passing into the brain, a condition called acute bilirubin encephalopathy. Prompt treatment may prevent significant lasting damage.

Signs of acute bilirubin encephalopathy in a baby with jaundice include:

  • Listlessness
  • Difficulty waking
  • High-pitched crying
  • Poor sucking or feeding
  • Backward arching of the neck and body
  • Fever


Kernicterus is the syndrome that occurs if acute bilirubin encephalopathy causes permanent damage to the brain. Kernicterus may result in:

  • Involuntary and uncontrolled movements (athetoid cerebral palsy)
  • Permanent upward gaze
  • Hearing loss
  • Improper development of tooth enamel


The best preventive of infant jaundice is adequate feeding. Breast-fed infants should have eight to 12 feedings a day for the first several days of life. Formula-fed infants usually should have 1 to 2 ounces (about 30 to 60 milliliters) of formula every two to three hours for the first week.

Depression (Overview,Symptoms in teens and adults…)


Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Also called major depressive disorder or clinical depression, it affects how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. You may have trouble doing normal day-to-day activities, and sometimes you may feel as if life isn’t worth living.

More than just a bout of the blues, depression isn’t a weakness and you can’t simply “snap out” of it. Depression may require long-term treatment. But don’t get discouraged. Most people with depression feel better with medication, psychotherapy or both.


Although depression may occur only once during your life, people typically have multiple episodes. During these episodes, symptoms occur most of the day, nearly every day and may include:

  • Feelings of sadness, tearfulness, emptiness or hopelessness
  • Angry outbursts, irritability or frustration, even over small matters
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in most or all normal activities, such as sex, hobbies or sports
  • Sleep disturbances, including insomnia or sleeping too much
  • Tiredness and lack of energy, so even small tasks take extra effort
  • Reduced appetite and weight loss or increased cravings for food and weight gain
  • Anxiety, agitation or restlessness
  • Slowed thinking, speaking or body movements
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt, fixating on past failures or self-blame
  • Trouble thinking, concentrating, making decisions and remembering things
  • Frequent or recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts or suicide
  • Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches

For many people with depression, symptoms usually are severe enough to cause noticeable problems in day-to-day activities, such as work, school, social activities or relationships with others. Some people may feel generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why.

Depression symptoms in children and teens

Common signs and symptoms of depression in children and teenagers are similar to those of adults, but there can be some differences.

  • In younger children, symptoms of depression may include sadness, irritability, clinginess, worry, aches and pains, refusing to go to school, or being underweight.
  • In teens, symptoms may include sadness, irritability, feeling negative and worthless, anger, poor performance or poor attendance at school, feeling misunderstood and extremely sensitive, using recreational drugs or alcohol, eating or sleeping too much, self-harm, loss of interest in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction.

Depression symptoms in older adults

Depression is not a normal part of growing older, and it should never be taken lightly. Unfortunately, depression often goes undiagnosed and untreated in older adults, and they may feel reluctant to seek help. Symptoms of depression may be different or less obvious in older adults, such as:

  • Memory difficulties or personality changes
  • Physical aches or pain
  • Fatigue, loss of appetite, sleep problems or loss of interest in sex — not caused by a medical condition or medication
  • Often wanting to stay at home, rather than going out to socialize or doing new things
  • Suicidal thinking or feelings, especially in older men

When to see a doctor

If you feel depressed, make an appointment to see your doctor or mental health professional as soon as you can. If you’re reluctant to seek treatment, talk to a friend or loved one, any health care professional, a faith leader, or someone else you trust.

When to get emergency help

If you think you may hurt yourself or attempt suicide, call 911 in the U.S. or your local emergency number immediately.

Migraine Overview


What is a migraine? A Mayo Clinic expert explains

Learning about migraine disorder can be intimidating. Amaal Starling, M.D., a neurologist at Mayo Clinic, walks you through the facts, the questions, and the answers to help you better understand this condition.

A migraine is a headache that can cause severe throbbing pain or a pulsing sensation, usually on one side of the head. It’s often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound. Migraine attacks can last for hours to days, and the pain can be so severe that it interferes with your daily activities.

For some people, a warning symptom known as an aura occurs before or with the headache. An aura can include visual disturbances, such as flashes of light or blind spots, or other disturbances, such as tingling on one side of the face or in an arm or leg and difficulty speaking.

Medications can help prevent some migraines and make them less painful. The right medicines, combined with self-help remedies and lifestyle changes, might help.


Migraines, which affect children and teenagers as well as adults, can progress through four stages: prodrome, aura, attack and post-drome. Not everyone who has migraines goes through all stages.


One or two days before a migraine, you might notice subtle changes that warn of an upcoming migraine, including:

  • Constipation
  • Mood changes, from depression to euphoria
  • Food cravings
  • Neck stiffness
  • Increased urination
  • Fluid retention
  • Frequent yawning


For some people, an aura might occur before or during migraines. Auras are reversible symptoms of the nervous system. They’re usually visual but can also include other disturbances. Each symptom usually begins gradually, builds up over several minutes and can last up to 60 minutes.

Examples of migraine auras include:

  • Visual phenomena, such as seeing various shapes, bright spots or flashes of light
  • Vision loss
  • Pins and needles sensations in an arm or leg
  • Weakness or numbness in the face or one side of the body
  • Difficulty speaking


A migraine usually lasts from 4 to 72 hours if untreated. How often migraines occur varies from person to person. Migraines might occur rarely or strike several times a month.

During a migraine, you might have:

  • Pain usually on one side of your head, but often on both sides
  • Pain that throbs or pulses
  • Sensitivity to light, sound, and sometimes smell and touch
  • Nausea and vomiting


After a migraine attack, you might feel drained, confused and washed out for up to a day. Some people report feeling elated. Sudden head movement might bring on the pain again briefly.

When to see a doctor

Migraines are often undiagnosed and untreated. If you regularly have signs and symptoms of migraine, keep a record of your attacks and how you treated them. Then make an appointment with your doctor to discuss your headaches.

Even if you have a history of headaches, see your doctor if the pattern changes or your headaches suddenly feel different.

See your doctor immediately or go to the emergency room if you have any of the following signs and symptoms, which could indicate a more serious medical problem:

  • An abrupt, severe headache like a thunderclap
  • Headache with fever, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, double vision, numbness or weakness in any part of the body, which could be a sign of a stroke
  • Headache after a head injury
  • A chronic headache that is worse after coughing, exertion, straining or a sudden movement
  • New headache pain after age 50

विटामिन डी(Vitamin D)

विटामिन डी का इतिहास

बहुत समय पहले या प्रथम युद्ध के समय एक वैज्ञानिक ने कुछ बच्चों को मछली का तेल देकर उनका रिकेट्सिया रोग से बचाव किया था या किस खाने की कमी से होता है इसे जानने के अनेक प्रकार के प्रयोग किए गए कुत्तों में प्रयोग किया गया तो ज्ञात हुआ कि बसा में घुलने वाले कई पदार्थ हैं जिसमें कुत्तों का हड्डियों का कंकाल प्रभावित होता है सन 1922 में वैज्ञानिक मैकुलम ने पाया कि यह अधिकार लिवर आयल का ऑक्सीकरण करके विटामिन ए को अलग करके यह देखा कि उसमें कोई तत्व है जो कि रिकेट्सिया को ठीक कर रहा है तो उस एरिया का नाम दिया गया और तमाम प्रयोगों द्वारा या अभी जाना गया कि स्ट्रॉल तेलों धूप में रखने से उनमें विकेट प्रतिरोधी तत्व उत्पन्न हो जाते हैं विटामिन डी के रासायनिक संगठन और विशेषताएं

यह सफेद रंग का दावेदार पदार्थ है इसमें कोई गंध नहीं होती हैं

यह वसा तथा बसा मुल्कों में घुलनशील है पर पानी में घुलनशील हैं

एसिड पर टेंपरेचर ऑक्सीजन के प्रति स्थिर रहता है

यह कार्बन ऑक्सीजन से बना एक यौगिक है

यह दो प्रकार के होते हैं

विटामिन डी या कौन सी फिरौल

इसे और कुछ देर और और प्रोविटामिन भी कहते हैं विटामिन d2 फफूंदी तथा अमीर आदमी भी पाया जाता है पेड़ पौधों में भी विटामिन डी पाया जाता है अरगोस टेबल पर पराबैगनी किरणों के पढ़ने की क्रिया से कैल्सी फेरल बनता है

विटामिन डी या या कॉलेकैल्सिफेरॉल

इसे प्रोविटामिन भी कहा जाता है या जीव-जंतुओं की कोशिकाओं में पाया जाता है और यह मानव को कोलेस्ट्रोल से भी बनता है विटामिन d3 विटामिन d2 की अपेक्षा अधिक कार्य करता है और या स्थिर भी है यह मनुष्य की त्वचा के नीचे पाया जाता है जो सूर्य प्रकाश पड़ने पर पराबैंगनी किरणों में बदल जाता है या शरीर में विटामिन डी तथा विटामिन d3 का हाइड्रोसिलयलेशन होकर आती क्रियाशील तत्व कैल्सिट्रियोल बन जाता है और खून में कैल्शियम की कमी हो जाने पर हार्मोन पैरा थायराइड इस क्रिया को और तेज कर देता है अफजाल अफजाल सन खाने के द्वारा पाया गया विटामिन डी का शोषण छोटी आत की खिलाड़ियों के द्वारा होकर लसीका संस्थान में पहुंचता है और लसिका संस्थान के द्वारा या रत्नल गांव से होकर लीवर तथा शरीर के अन्य भागों में पहुंचता है अबॉर्शन के समय विटामिन डी कुछ थोड़े मात्रा में खराब हो जाता है खराब बदबूदार होने से विटामिन डी ज्यादा मात्रा में खराब हो जाता है विटामिन डी के अब्जॉर्प्शन विटामिन और नमक की जरूरत होती है अतः इन को प्रभावित करने वाले कारक विटामिन डी के अवशोषण को भी नुकसान करते हैं विटामिन डी का निष्कासन सिर्फ मल मूत्र द्वारा ही होता है विटामिन डी के कार्य निम्न बताएं

कैल्शियम और फास्फोरस के चयापचय होना

इससे कैल्शियम और फास्फोरस का छोटी आत में अफजाल करने की क्रिया बढ़ जाती है और वह उसे नियंत्रण में भी करता है यदि इसकी उपस्थित नहीं हो तो कैल्शियम व फास्फोरस मल मूत्र के द्वारा निकल जाते हैं इस कारण से हड्डियों पर गलत असर पड़ता है विटामिन डी के द्वारा गुर्दे में दोबारा अब्जॉर्प्शन करने की क्षमता बढ़ जाती है दांतों को मजबूती विटामिन डी तथा कैल्शयम के जमाव में सहायक होता है विटामिन डी का चरण का विरोध कर उन को मजबूत बनाता है खून में कैल्शियम फास्फोरस को नियंत्रित करता है और विटामिन डी के द्वारा भी किया जाता है विटामिन डी की कमी से खून में कैल्शियम तथा फास्फोरस की मात्रा बढ़ जाती है

पैरा थायराइड की क्रिया ग्रंथियों से निकलने वाले हार्मोन की मात्रा में विटामिन डी से कंट्रोल होकर कैल्शियम और फास्फोरस को हड्डियों से निकालकर खून में मिला देता है इसका प्रभाव गुर्दे पर नहीं पड़ता और मूत्र से अतिरिक्त फास्फोरस बाहर निकल जाता है हार्मोन के इस कार्य से खून में कैल्शियम तथा फास्फोरस की मात्रा समान करने में मदद मिलती है

प्रोटीन का निर्माण

विटामिन डी आंतों के प्रोटीन बनाने के कार्य में जुड़ा रहता है विटामिन डी की कमी से कैल्शियम को अब जॉब करने में कमी आ जाती है

हड्डियों का निर्माण

विटामिन डी के डीके उपस्थित में हमारी हड्डियों का निर्माण होता है या खाने में लिया जाता है कैल्शियम और फास्फोरस का अवशोषण विटामिन डी के मदद से किया जाता है यह शरीर के विकास में मजबूती प्रदान करने के लिए विटामिन डी जरूरी है विटामिन डी की कमी के प्रभाव इसकी कमी से खून में अल्कलाइन फास्फोरस इंजन की मात्रा बढ़ जाती है विटामिन डी की कमी बहुत समय तक बनी रहने पर कई प्रकार की बीमारियों का सामना करना पड़ता है जैसे

सूखा रोग

बच्चों में जिनकी आयु 6 से 16 माह तक के बच्चों में विटामिन डी की कमी से सूखा रोग हो जाता है इस रोग में विटामिन डी कैल्शियम फास्फोरस तीनों की कमी हो जाती है तभी सूखा रोग हो जाता है


जब इस कर्वी सूखा दोनों साथ-साथ होने के लक्षण हो जाते हैं तो गर्दों में भी असर डालता है या रिकेट्स गुर्दों में रोग होने संबंधी अतिरिक्त फास्फोरस का बहन पेशाब के बढ़ जाते हैं साथ में एल्ब्यूमिन की मात्रा अधिक हो जाती है गुर्दे अपना काम करना कम कर देते हैं

बाल रिकेट्स

यह 6 माह से 1 वर्ष तक के बच्चों में होने वाला टिकट चलाता है इसके कारण शरीर में कैल्शियम का अवशोषण नहीं हो पाता है बच्चे के खाने में कैल्शियम फास्फोरस विटामिन डी एवं सूर्य का प्रकाश ना मिलने के कारण हो जाता है


हड्डियां कमजोर हो जाती हैं प्रमुख रूप से टांगों की हड्डियों में शरीर का वजन नहीं उठा पाते जिससे लचक आ जाती है और टांगे कमजोर टेढ़ी हो जाते हैं

सिर की हड्डियां बेडौल हो जाती हैं और आगे पीछे की हड्डियां बाहर निकल आते हैं रोग बढ़ने पर रीड की हड्डी में असर पड़ता है और रीढ़ की हड्डी होने के कारण कुंवर सा निकल आता है जोड़ों में सूजन आ जाती है कलाई में दर्द रखने का आकार बदल जाता है सीरम में फास्फोरस का बढ़ना शुरू हो जाता है और फास्फोरस कम होने लगता है पेट फूल जाता है सीना बाहर को निकल आता है रोग प्रतिरोधक क्षमता कम हो जाती है मांस पेशी तथा दांतों का विकास पूरी तरह से नहीं हो पाता इस कारण से कई तरह की बीमारियां हो जाती हैं


टिटैनीऔर सूखा रोग

इसका समय पर उपचार ना किया जाए तो किडनी रोग के कारण जोड़ों में ऐठन होनी शुरू हो जाती है जिसके कारण रोगी बेहोश होने लगता है इसका कारण कैल्शियम फास्फोरस के चाय बचाव में असमानता आ जाती है विटामिन डी की कमी हो जाती है थायराइड ग्रंथि को खराबी हो जाती है और हाथ पैर में जोड़ों में दर्द होने लगता है

दंत क्षय

विटामिन डी की कमी के कारण दांतों की बनावट विकास में बहुत बड़ा असर पड़ता है और दांत निकलने में समय ज्यादा लगता है दांत स्वस्थ नहीं होते उनमें स्वर्ण जैसी समस्या का सामना करना पड़ता है हड्डियों में प्रभाव पड़ता है

हड्डियों में प्रभाव

एस्ट्रो मलेशिया विटामिन डी की कमी के कारण हो जाता है तथा इसे बड़ों की रिकेट्सिया भी कहा जाता है और शरीर में हड्डियों की प्रक्रिया प्रभावित हो जाती है यह स्थित गर्भावस्था और धात्री महिलाओं में भी देखने को ज्यादा मिलती है

विटामिन डी के अधिक होने के प्रभाव

विटामिन डी की ज्यादा मात्रा होने पर छह रोग गठिया जैसी बीमारी ठीक होने की संभावना होती है विटामिन डी की मात्रा अधिक होने पर बच्चों में विषय में लक्षण दिखाई देते हैं बच्चे कमजोर हो जाते हैं बड़ों में भी अधिक समय तक विटामिन डी लेने से विषैले लक्षण दिखाई देते हैं इसकी अधिकता से थायराइड हार्मोन की अधिकता से खून में कैल्शियम फास्फोरस की मात्रा बढ़ जाती है और पेशाब में कैल्शियम फास्फोरस निकलने लगता है या ज्यादा लगती है कैल्शियम हार्ट की रक्त वाहिनी या फेफड़ों और गुर्दों में एकत्र होने लगता है


सिर दर्द थकान जी मिचलाना वजन कम होना चिड़चिड़ापन दस्त गुस्सा आना गुर्दे खराब होना पथरी बनना बार बार प्यास लगना बार बार पेशाब आना शरीर की मांसपेशियां कमजोर होना कोमल तंतुओं में कैल्शियम का जमा होना मानसिक दुर्बलता उल्टी चक्कर आना आंख में आंखों में कमी आना आदि लक्षण हो जाते हैं

विटामिन डी किन चीजों से प्राप्त करते हैं

प्राणी खाने के पदार्थों से जैसे अंडा का पीला वाला हिस्सा लीवर और कुछ एक मछलियों में भी पाया जाता है खाने वाले पदार्थों में कोलेस्ट्रोल तथा क्रिस्टल भी पाया जाता है जो शरीर के विटामिन d3 और विटामिन टू में बदल जाता है सूर्य की पराबैंगनी किरणों में त्वचा के नीचे पाए जाने वाले साथ डिहाइड्रोकोलस्ट्रोल को विटामिन d2 में बदल देती है दूंगा और मिट्टी के घर में रूकावट होने लगती है

ODD(Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is a behavioural disorder in childrens…


Even the best-behaved children can be difficult and challenging at times. But oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) includes a frequent and ongoing pattern of anger, irritability, arguing and defiance toward parents and other authority figures. ODD also includes being spiteful and seeking revenge, a behavior called vindictiveness.

These emotional and behavioral issues cause serious problems with family life, social activities, school and work. But as a parent, you don’t have to try to manage a child with ODD alone. Your health care provider, a mental health professional and a child development expert can help.

Treatment of ODD involves learning skills to help build positive family interactions and to manage problem behaviors. Other therapy, and possibly medicines, may be needed to treat related mental health conditions.


Sometimes it’s difficult to recognize the difference between a strong-willed or emotional child and one with oppositional defiant disorder. It’s common for children to show oppositional behavior at certain stages of development.

Symptoms of ODD generally begin during preschool years. Sometimes ODD may develop later, but almost always before the early teen years. Oppositional and defiant behaviors are frequent and ongoing. They cause severe problems with relationships, social activities, school and work, for both the child and the family.

Emotional and behavioral symptoms of ODD generally last at least six months. They include angry and irritable mood, argumentative and defiant behavior, and hurtful and revengeful behavior.

Angry and irritable mood

  • Often and easily loses temper.
  • Is frequently touchy and easily annoyed by others.
  • Is often angry and resentful.

Argumentative and defiant behavior

  • Often argues with adults or people in authority.
  • Often actively defies or refuses to follow adults’ requests or rules.
  • Often annoys or upsets people on purpose.
  • Often blames others for their own mistakes or misbehavior.

Hurtful and revengeful behavior

  • Says mean and hateful things when upset.
  • Tries to hurt the feelings of others and seeks revenge, also called being vindictive.
  • Has shown vindictive behavior at least twice in the past six months.


ODD can be mild, moderate or severe:

  • Mild. Symptoms occur only in one setting, such as only at home, school, work or with peers.
  • Moderate. Some symptoms occur in at least two settings.
  • Severe. Some symptoms occur in three or more settings.

For some children, symptoms may first be seen only at home. But with time, problem behavior also may happen in other settings, such as school, social activities and with friends.

When to see a doctor

Your child isn’t likely to see their own behavior as a problem. Instead, your child will probably complain about unreasonable demands or blame others for problems.

If you think your child may have ODD or other problem behavior, or you’re concerned about your ability to parent a challenging child, seek help from a child psychologist or a child psychiatrist with expertise in behavior problems. Ask your child’s pediatrician or other health care provider for a referral to a mental health provider.


There’s no known clear cause of oppositional defiant disorder. Causes may include a combination of genetic and environmental factors:

  • Genetics. A child’s natural personality or character — also called temperament — may contribute to developing ODD. Differences in the way nerves and the brain function also may play a role.
  • Environment. Problems with parenting that may involve a lack of supervision, inconsistent or harsh discipline, or abuse or neglect may contribute to developing ODD.

Risk factors

Oppositional defiant disorder is a complex problem. Possible risk factors for ODD include:

  • Temperament — a child who has a temperament that includes difficulty managing emotions, such as reacting with strong emotions to situations or having trouble tolerating frustration.
  • Parenting issues — a child who experiences abuse or neglect, harsh or inconsistent discipline, or a lack of proper supervision.
  • Other family issues — a child who lives with parent or family relationships that are unstable or has a parent with a mental health condition or substance use disorder.
  • Environment — problem behaviors that are reinforced through attention from peers and inconsistent discipline from other authority figures, such as teachers.


Children and teenagers with oppositional defiant disorder may have trouble at home with parents and siblings, in school with teachers, and at work with supervisors and other authority figures. Children and teens with ODD may struggle to make and keep friends and relationships.

ODD also may lead to other problems, such as:

  • Poor school and work performance.
  • Antisocial behavior.
  • Legal problems.
  • Impulse control problems.
  • Substance use disorder.
  • Suicide.

Many children and teens with ODD also have other mental health conditions, such as:

  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Conduct disorder.
  • Depression.
  • Anxiety disorders.
  • Learning and communication disorders.

Treating these other mental health conditions may help reduce ODD symptoms. It may be difficult to treat ODD if these other conditions are not evaluated and treated appropriately.


There’s no sure way to prevent oppositional defiant disorder. But positive parenting and early treatment can help improve behavior and prevent the situation from getting worse. The earlier that ODD can be managed, the better.

Treatment can help restore your child’s self-esteem and rebuild a positive relationship between you and your child. Your child’s relationships with other important adults in their life — such as teachers and care providers — also will benefit from early treatment.

Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD)


Autism spectrum disorder is a condition related to brain development that impacts how a person perceives and socializes with others, causing problems in social interaction and communication. The disorder also includes limited and repetitive patterns of behavior. The term “spectrum” in autism spectrum disorder refers to the wide range of symptoms and severity.

Autism spectrum disorder includes conditions that were previously considered separate — autism, Asperger’s syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and an unspecified form of pervasive developmental disorder. Some people still use the term “Asperger’s syndrome,” which is generally thought to be at the mild end of autism spectrum disorder.

Autism spectrum disorder begins in early childhood and eventually causes problems functioning in society — socially, in school and at work, for example. Often children show symptoms of autism within the first year. A small number of children appear to develop normally in the first year, and then go through a period of regression between 18 and 24 months of age when they develop autism symptoms.

While there is no cure for autism spectrum disorder, intensive, early treatment can make a big difference in the lives of many children.


Some children show signs of autism spectrum disorder in early infancy, such as reduced eye contact, lack of response to their name or indifference to caregivers. Other children may develop normally for the first few months or years of life, but then suddenly become withdrawn or aggressive or lose language skills they’ve already acquired. Signs usually are seen by age 2 years.

Each child with autism spectrum disorder is likely to have a unique pattern of behavior and level of severity — from low functioning to high functioning.

Some children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty learning, and some have signs of lower than normal intelligence. Other children with the disorder have normal to high intelligence — they learn quickly, yet have trouble communicating and applying what they know in everyday life and adjusting to social situations.

Because of the unique mixture of symptoms in each child, severity can sometimes be difficult to determine. It’s generally based on the level of impairments and how they impact the ability to function.

Below are some common signs shown by people who have autism spectrum disorder.

Social communication and interaction

A child or adult with autism spectrum disorder may have problems with social interaction and communication skills, including any of these signs:

  • Fails to respond to his or her name or appears not to hear you at times
  • Resists cuddling and holding, and seems to prefer playing alone, retreating into his or her own world
  • Has poor eye contact and lacks facial expression
  • Doesn’t speak or has delayed speech, or loses previous ability to say words or sentences
  • Can’t start a conversation or keep one going, or only starts one to make requests or label items
  • Speaks with an abnormal tone or rhythm and may use a singsong voice or robot-like speech
  • Repeats words or phrases verbatim, but doesn’t understand how to use them
  • Doesn’t appear to understand simple questions or directions
  • Doesn’t express emotions or feelings and appears unaware of others’ feelings
  • Doesn’t point at or bring objects to share interest
  • Inappropriately approaches a social interaction by being passive, aggressive or disruptive
  • Has difficulty recognizing nonverbal cues, such as interpreting other people’s facial expressions, body postures or tone of voice

Patterns of behavior

A child or adult with autism spectrum disorder may have limited, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities, including any of these signs:

  • Performs repetitive movements, such as rocking, spinning or hand flapping
  • Performs activities that could cause self-harm, such as biting or head-banging
  • Develops specific routines or rituals and becomes disturbed at the slightest change
  • Has problems with coordination or has odd movement patterns, such as clumsiness or walking on toes, and has odd, stiff or exaggerated body language
  • Is fascinated by details of an object, such as the spinning wheels of a toy car, but doesn’t understand the overall purpose or function of the object
  • Is unusually sensitive to light, sound or touch, yet may be indifferent to pain or temperature
  • Doesn’t engage in imitative or make-believe play
  • Fixates on an object or activity with abnormal intensity or focus
  • Has specific food preferences, such as eating only a few foods, or refusing foods with a certain texture

As they mature, some children with autism spectrum disorder become more engaged with others and show fewer disturbances in behavior. Some, usually those with the least severe problems, eventually may lead normal or near-normal lives. Others, however, continue to have difficulty with language or social skills, and the teen years can bring worse behavioral and emotional problems.

When to see a doctor

Babies develop at their own pace, and many don’t follow exact timelines found in some parenting books. But children with autism spectrum disorder usually show some signs of delayed development before age 2 years.

If you’re concerned about your child’s development or you suspect that your child may have autism spectrum disorder, discuss your concerns with your doctor. The symptoms associated with the disorder can also be linked with other developmental disorders.

Signs of autism spectrum disorder often appear early in development when there are obvious delays in language skills and social interactions. Your doctor may recommend developmental tests to identify if your child has delays in cognitive, language and social skills, if your child:

  • Doesn’t respond with a smile or happy expression by 6 months
  • Doesn’t mimic sounds or facial expressions by 9 months
  • Doesn’t babble or coo by 12 months
  • Doesn’t gesture — such as point or wave — by 14 months
  • Doesn’t say single words by 16 months
  • Doesn’t play “make-believe” or pretend by 18 months
  • Doesn’t say two-word phrases by 24 months
  • Loses language skills or social skills at any age


Autism spectrum disorder has no single known cause. Given the complexity of the disorder, and the fact that symptoms and severity vary, there are probably many causes. Both genetics and environment may play a role.

  • Genetics. Several different genes appear to be involved in autism spectrum disorder. For some children, autism spectrum disorder can be associated with a genetic disorder, such as Rett syndrome or fragile X syndrome. For other children, genetic changes (mutations) may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder. Still other genes may affect brain development or the way that brain cells communicate, or they may determine the severity of symptoms. Some genetic mutations seem to be inherited, while others occur spontaneously.
  • Environmental factors. Researchers are currently exploring whether factors such as viral infections, medications or complications during pregnancy, or air pollutants play a role in triggering autism spectrum disorder.

No link between vaccines and autism spectrum disorder

One of the greatest controversies in autism spectrum disorder centers on whether a link exists between the disorder and childhood vaccines. Despite extensive research, no reliable study has shown a link between autism spectrum disorder and any vaccines. In fact, the original study that ignited the debate years ago has been retracted due to poor design and questionable research methods.

Avoiding childhood vaccinations can place your child and others in danger of catching and spreading serious diseases, including whooping cough (pertussis), measles or mumps.

Risk factors

The number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is rising. It’s not clear whether this is due to better detection and reporting or a real increase in the number of cases, or both.

Autism spectrum disorder affects children of all races and nationalities, but certain factors increase a child’s risk. These may include:

  • Your child’s sex. Boys are about four times more likely to develop autism spectrum disorder than girls are.
  • Family history. Families who have one child with autism spectrum disorder have an increased risk of having another child with the disorder. It’s also not uncommon for parents or relatives of a child with autism spectrum disorder to have minor problems with social or communication skills themselves or to engage in certain behaviors typical of the disorder.
  • Other disorders. Children with certain medical conditions have a higher than normal risk of autism spectrum disorder or autism-like symptoms. Examples include fragile X syndrome, an inherited disorder that causes intellectual problems; tuberous sclerosis, a condition in which benign tumors develop in the brain; and Rett syndrome, a genetic condition occurring almost exclusively in girls, which causes slowing of head growth, intellectual disability and loss of purposeful hand use.
  • Extremely preterm babies. Babies born before 26 weeks of gestation may have a greater risk of autism spectrum disorder.
  • Parents’ ages. There may be a connection between children born to older parents and autism spectrum disorder, but more research is necessary to establish this link.


Problems with social interactions, communication and behavior can lead to:

  • Problems in school and with successful learning
  • Employment problems
  • Inability to live independently
  • Social isolation
  • Stress within the family
  • Victimization and being bullied


There’s no way to prevent autism spectrum disorder, but there are treatment options. Early diagnosis and intervention is most helpful and can improve behavior, skills and language development. However, intervention is helpful at any age. Though children usually don’t outgrow autism spectrum disorder symptoms, they may learn to function well.

विटामिन ए(Vitamin A)

विटामिन विटामिन कार्बनिक तत्व होते हैं जो कि हमारे शरीर के लिए जरूरी होते हैं विटामिन हमारे निर्माण में बहुत मदद करते हैं हमारे शरीर के सभी क्रियाओं को पूरा करते हैं मदद करते हैं विटामिन शरीर के चयापचय क्रिया को पूरा करने में मदद करते हैं विटामिन शरीर के चयापचय क्रिया को पूरा करने में मदद करते हैं विटामिन की पर्याप्त मात्रा में नहीं बनते तो संश्लेषण नहीं होता इसलिए इनको खाने में शामिल करना होता है शरीर विटामिन नहीं बनाता हमको खाने में ही लेना होता है विटामिन की कमी से तमाम तरह के रोग हो जाते हैं इसलिए हमारे खाने में प्रोटीन का रोल बसा लवण साथ में विटामिन का होना बहुत जरूरी है

विटामिन हमारे लिए निम्न प्रकार से उपयोगी होते हैं

विटामिन युक्त खाना से व्यक्ति स्वस्थ और निरोगी रहता है विटामिन की कमी से बीमारियां घेरने लगती

विटामिन से शरीर में रोग प्रतिरोधक क्षमता बढ़ती है

विटामिन की कमी से व्यक्ति दुर्बल हो जाता है

विटामिन की कमी से नींद नहीं आती है

विटामिन लेने से भूख बढ़ती है चुस्त-दुरुस्त रहते

विटामिन के नामकरण

विटामिन की की खोज सन 1912 में हुई इसका श्रेय पंख जो खोज की विटामिन के वैज्ञानिक हैं जिन्होंने खाने के पदार्थ में इस तत्व को नाम विटामिन का दिया और जैसे-जैसे अलग-अलग विटामिन की खोज हुई वैसे वैसे उनका रासायनिक संगठन हमको ज्ञात होता गया तथा इसको संज्ञा दी गई ए बी सी डी के नाम रसायनिक संगठन के अनुसार दिया गया विटामिन को रोक के अनुरूप काम करते देखा गया इसी तरह का उसे नाम भी दिया गया विटामिन की उपयोगिता को प्रभावित करने वाले कारक तमाम तरह के विटामिन खाने में इस तरह के पाए जाते हैं जिनका अभी शोषण नहीं होता जैसे अनाज में निकोटिन अम्ल पाए जाते हैं जो कि फाइटिंग के कारण निष्क्रिय होने के बाद में वसा में घुलनशील विटामिन पाचन के बाद ही अवशोषित होते हैं विटामिन खाने के पदार्थों में कमी खाने में विटामिन से मिलते जुलते एंटीविटामिन भी पाए जाते हैं विटामिन में विशेषण के साथ एंटीविटामिन खाने में एंजाइम की क्रिया को पूरा करते हैं इसी कारण विटामिन शरीर को नहीं मिल पाते एंटीविटामिन के अनिष्ट भी कहा जाता है जैसे एमिनो यूरिन एक्सपायरी डेट

प्रोविटामिन का मिलना का मिलना या पाया जाना

कई खानों के पदार्थ में विटामिन स्वयं के रूप में नहीं होते प्रोविटामिन के रूप में मिलते हैं जो किया होने पर विटामिन में बदल जाते हैं जैसे कैरोटीन का विटामिन ए में बदलना की ट्रॉफी इनका नाइसिन में बदलना है

आंतों में विटामिन का निर्माण होना

छोटी आत में पाए जाने वाले कुछ बैक्टीरिया विटामिन का निर्माण करते हैं जिनको हम विटामिन b1 b2 b12 के नाम से जानते हैं और निकोटीनिक एसिड की क्रिया कैसे विटामिनों की बहुत कम प्राप्ति होती है बीमारी के समय यह छोटी आत में इस तरह का कार्य करते हुए यह होते हुए देखा गया है खाने के अलग-अलग समूह होते हैं खाने के पदार्थ में सभी तरह के विटामिन पाए जाते हैं यदि हर व्यक्ति इसका नियमित और सही मात्रा से इस्तेमाल करता है तो उसे बाहर से या अतिरिक्त विटामिन लेने की जरूरत नहीं होती हैं विटामिन को मापने की इकाई शुरू में बसा में घुलने वाली विटामिन कामा इंटरनेशनल यूनिट से किया जाता था पानी में खुलने वाली विटामिन को मिलीग्राम से मापा जाता है लेकिन आजकल तो सभी विटामिनों को माइक्रो मिलीग्राम में मापा जाता है और 1 मिलीग्राम में 1000 मई को एग्जाम बराबर 40,000 इंटरनेशनल यूनिट और 1 माइक्रोग्राम में 440 इंटरनेशनल यूनिट होते हैं विटामिन को भागों में बांटना इसे दो भागों में बांटा गया

बसा में भूलने वाले विटामिन ए डी के

पानी में घुलने वाले विटामिन बी सी और पी

बसा में घुलने वाले विटामिन बसी ए घोल में घुलने मिल जा ते हैं

यह शरीर से निकलते नही बल्कि संग्रहीत होते रहते t

ज्यादा होने पर शरीर में जमा रहते हैं विटामिन की कमी का पता बहुत धीरे धीरे चलता है

इसमें कार्बन ऑक्सीजन और हाइड्रोजन के अंग पए जाते हैं

इनका अवशोषण लस्का में होता है

रोज के खाने में विटामिन को होना जरूरी नहीं है हमको हमारे शरीर में सब्जियों से मिल जाते हैं

विटामिन ए

विटामिन ए का प्रयोग चूहों में किया गया सन् 1913 में और उनकी ग्रोथ के लिए अंडे की जर्दी मक्खन में उपस्थित एक तत्व का नाम विटामिन ए दिया और यह भी बताया कि यह आंखों की बीमारी त्वचा रोग मक्खन और मछली के यकृत के इस्तेमाल से हो जाते हैं एक दूसरे वैज्ञानिक ने बताया कि पेड़ पौधों और सब्जियों में पाए जाने वाले विशेष तरह के केरोटिन शरीर में जाकर पाचन के बाद विटामिन में बदल जाते हैं इसे इसीलिए इसे विटामिन ए कहते हैं


यह एक पीला हल्के रंग रेशेदार योगिक जो कार्बन हाइड्रोजन तथा ऑक्सीजन में मिश्रण से बनता है कैरोटीन पौधों करो 10 पौधों में संश्लेषित गहरे लाल रंग का होता है और या तीन प्रकार के होते हैं

बसा में मैं भूलने वाला तथा पानी में नहीं भूलता

समान ताप में या खराब नहीं होता हवा की उपस्थित एवं सूर्य की रोशनी में ऑक्सीकरण होने के कारण काफी मात्रा में खराब हो जाता है

विटामिन ए प्राणियों के खाद्य पदार्थों में तथा कैरोटीन खाने के पदार्थों में पाये जाते है

विटामिन ए कितने प्रकार के होते हैं

विटामिन कई तरह के खाने में एक से अधिक तरह के पाए जाते हैं इसे विटामिन ए का मिश्रण कहा जाता हैं

या 4 तरह के होते हैं इनका कार्य भी अलग-अलग होते हैं

जैसे विटामिन रेटीनल

ये केवल प्राणी खाने के पदार्थों में पाए जाते हैं जैसे दूध मक्खन लीवर गुर्दे में पाया जाता है और हरी पीली सब्जियों में भी पाया जाता है गाजर पपीता पालक इतिहास में beta-carotene के शक्ल में पाया जाता है विटामिन ए तथा कैरोटीन में समानता का कोई असर नहीं होता है

विटामिन ए टू

ताजे पानी में पाए जाने वाली मछलियों के लिवर में पाया जाता है

विटामिन ए एल्डिहाइड

या केवल आंखों के रेटिना के राइट कौन में पाया जाता है या कम रोशनी में देखने के काम में उपयोग किया जाता है

विटामिन ए वन एसिड

या खारे पानी में पाए जाने वाली मछलियों में मैं पाया जाता है शरीर में बनता है और शरीर के विकास के लिए बहुत जरूरी होता है

रक्त में मात्रा

हमारे रक्त में विटामिन ए की मात्रा

हमारे दांत में विटामिन ए की मात्रा 1930 इंटरनेशनल यूनिट प्रति 100 मिलीलीटर रहती है और या गर्भवती महिला आखिरी 3 महीने में 30 प्लस कम हो जाती है और नवजात शिशु में यदि सूखा संक्रमण हो जाता है तो या और कम हो जाती है


लीवर में 90 परसेंट विटामिन ए संग्रहित होता है और यह 3 माह तक के लिए हो जाती है और कुछ मात्रा में विटामिन ए गुर्दे फेफड़े और बसी ऊतकों में भी रहती है एक जवान व्यक्ति के लिवर में लगभग एक लाख यूनिट होती है और यह बढ़ती रहती है

आंखों की सामान रोशनी

आंखों की अच्छी रोशनी बरकरार रखने के लिए विटामिन ए बहुत ही जरूरी होता है कम रोशनी में भी आपके देखने की ताकत रहती है रेटिना में दो तरह की कोशिकाएं होती हैं जो रंग प्रदान करने का कार्य करती हैं इनमें आपसे नामक प्रोटीन होता है

कोमल त्वचा

विटामिन ए रेट इन एसिड एवं म्यूकस राव में उत्साहित करता है मैं उससे मुंह छोटी आंतों की अंदर आंख स्वसन आम यूरियन यूरिन मार्ग आदि जगहों की झिल्ली में कमी रहती है जिससे त्वचा कोमल चमकदार बनी रहती है और विटामिन ए के कारण बैक्टीरिया की रहने की संभावना नहीं होती

विटामिन ए एपीठेलियल कोशिकाओं के स्वस्थ कोशिकाओं को स्वस्थ बनाए रखते हैं

विटामिन ए एपिथेलियल कोशिकाओं को मजबूत बनाने में मदद करते हैं मानव शरीर में सभी भी थे रियल कोशिकाओं की एक परत बनी रह


गला ना त्वचा श्वास नली पाचन अंग एवं आंतरिक कोमलता रहने में विटामिन ए का महत्वपूर्ण रोल होता है

हड्डियों एवं दांतो की वृद्धि तथा मजबूती

विटामिन ए दातों हड्डियों के बढ़ने में एवं मजबूत बनाने में मदद करते हैं बाल्यावस्था में खाने में विटामिन ए युक्त खाना खाने से मजबूती रहती है और मसूड़ों की भी मजबूती रहती है

नर्वस सिस्टम

नर्वस सिस्टम के लिए विटामिन ए बहुत जरूरी है विटामिन ए की कमी से नर्वस सिस्टम खराब होने लगता है

विटामिन ए प्रजनन अंगों को स्वस्थ रखता है

विटामिन ए शरीर में पर्याप्त होने पर प्रजनन अंग स्वस्थ रहते हैं और यौन हार्मोन का रखरखाव बराबर बना रहता है विटामिन ए समान प्रजनन के लिए मानव को जरूरी होता है इसकी कमी से स्थिति स्त्री परुष दोनों ही प्रजनन क्षमता नहीं होती और यह प्रोटीन के लिए भी जरूरी है विटामिन ए के कारण प्रोटीन की उचित मात्रा शरीर में क्रियाशीलता को भी प्रभावित कर

ब्लू को प्रोटीन में भी विटामिन ए मुख्य भूमिका निभाती है तथा इसकी कमी से पथरी लीवर में में में हो जाते हैं

विटामिन ए की कमी से क्या-क प्रभाव

आपके म्यूकस बनना बंद हो जाता है लैसमार्क झिल्ली काम नहीं करती लार ग्रंथियां आंख से आंसू ग्रंथियों स्वसन नालयों नदियों की मुलायम मुलायम का समाप्त हो जाती है और इन अंगों की कार्य करने की शक्ति में कमी आ जाती है और इन अंगों का विकास बंद हो जाता है

विटामिन ए की कमी से पुरुषों की ज्ञानेंद्रियों पर प्रभाव पड़ता है तथा शुक्राणु बनने कम हो जाते हैं

विटामिन ए की कमी से गुर्दों में पथरी बनने लगती है और पेशाब आने में परेशानी होती है

विटामिन ए की कमी से दस्त आने लगते हैं तथा बहरेपन होने की संभावना बढ़ती है

विटामिन ए की कमी से रतौंधी रोग हो जाता है जिससे कार्निया सूख जाती है और पारदर्शिता समाप्त हो जाती है जिसे सिरोसिस का नियम भी कहते हैं

विटामिन ए की कमी से आंख के अंदरूनी भाग की झिल्ली की पर सफेद हो जाती है भूरे रंग के धब्बे पड़ जाते हैं जिसके कारण कार्निया की में दाने निकलने लगते हैं और पस पड़ जाता है और आपस में चिपकने लगता है हम इसे बीटा धब्बों के नाम से जानते हैं

विटामिन ए की अधिकता के का प्रभाव होते हैं

विटामिन ए की अधिकता शरीर पर बहुत ही हानिकारक असर पड़ता है वह 5000 से 2,000 आईवी प्रति किलोग्राम शरीर के वजन से 6 से 15 माह तक रोज लेता है तो उसे विटामिन ए के अधिक होने के लक्षण नजर आने लगते हैं जैसे भूख न लगना सिर में दर्द होना गुस्सा चिड़चिड़ापन खुरदरी त्वचा खुजली पैरों की हड्डियों में सूजन आना लीवर और तिल्ली का बढ़ना खून से सिरम से विटामिन ए की मात्रा का बढ़ना सांस लेने में तकलीफ होना बालों का झड़ना जोड़ों में दर्द होना फोटो में छाले आदि हो जाते हैं

विटामिन ए पकाने में तापमान का क्या प्रभा

विटामिन के पदार्थ पकाने में खराब नहीं होते मक्खन तेल में 100 से ऊपर टॉप में खराब होते हैं और फलों में विटामिन सूर्य के प्रकाश से खराब हो जाते हैं और डिब्बे में कैरोटीन सही बना रहता है मछली के आयल को बोतलों में खुला रखने पर विटामिन ए 3 ऑल खराब हो जाता है तथा उसमें उसे वसायुक्त बदबू आने लगती है उसका विटामिन ए खराब हो जाता है

विटामिन ए कहां-कहां से पा सकते हैं

विटामिन ए मछली के लिवर में बहुत अधिक मात्रा में होता है पर इसके तेल खाने के पदार्थ पकाने में इस्तेमाल नहीं किया जाता विटामिन ए अच्छी श्रेणी के साधन मक्खन हरा धनिया अरबी के पत्ते आम पालक गाजर पपीता आदमी अधिक मात्रा में विटामिन मिलता है दूध और मक्खन में विटामिन ए रेटीना में पाया जाता है रोजाना कितना लेना चाहिए विटामिन ए आयु के हिसाब से लेना चाहिए व्यक्ति की अवस्था क्या है उसी हिसाब से लेना चाहिए वैसे सामान्यता समान व्यक्ति को 750 माइक्रोग्राम विटामिन ए या 3000 माइक्रोग्राम कैरोटीन रोजाना लेना चाहिए थैंक यू

Sensory Processing Disorder:Sensory Issues in Childrens

Children with a sensory processing disorder may have an increased or decreased sensitivity to sensory input, such as light, sound, and touch. They may avoid or seek out sensory stimulation as a result.

What is sensory processing disorder?

Sensory processing disorder is a neurological condition in children that can affect the way the brain processes information from the senses. People with sensory processing disorder may be extra sensitive to or not react to sensory input, depending on how they are affected.

Examples of sensory input may include:

  • light
  • sound
  • taste
  • touch
  • smell

Children who have sensory issues may have an aversion to things that overstimulate their senses, such as loud environments, bright lights, or intense smells. Or, they may seek out additional stimulation in settings that don’t stimulate their senses enough.

Not a great deal is known about sensory issues or sensory processing disorder. More research is still needed.

Keep reading to learn more about the potential causes and symptoms of sensory processing disorder and how sensory issues can be treated.

What is sensory processing?

You may have learned about the five senses in elementary school, but the truth is, you experience the world with more than just your five senses.

Sensory processing is typically divided into eight main types. They can include:

Proprioception. Proprioception is the “internal” sense of awareness you have for your body. It’s what helps you maintain posture and motor control, for example. It also tells you about how you’re moving and occupying space.
Vestibular. This term refers to the inner ear spatial recognition. It’s what keeps you balanced and coordinated.
Interoception. This is the sense of what’s happening in your body. It may be best understood as how you “feel.” This includes whether you feel hot or cold and whether you feel your emotions.
Five senses. Lastly, there are the 5 common senses — touch, hearing, taste, smell, and sight.
It’s important to note that sensory processing disorder isn’t officially recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). There is a lack of research-based evidence to support diagnosing this disorder on its own. Many doctors and experts believe that sensory issues are actually a component of another condition or disorder, such as autism spectrum disorder.

The term “sensory processing disorder“ is more commonlyTrusted Source used in the field of occupational therapy.

But what is known about sensory processing disorder can help parents, healthcare professionals, and other caregivers understand the condition and provide support.

What are the signs and symptoms of sensory processing disorder?
The symptoms of having sensory processing issues may depend on the way a child processes different sensations.

Children who are easily stimulated may have hypersensitivity. This means they have an increased sensitivity to sensory inputs like light, sound, and touch. These sensations may bother them more, cause them to lose focus in the presence of too much sensory information, or cause them to act out.

Children may also experience hyposensitivity. This means they may have reduced sensitivity to sensory output.

The type of sensitivity someone experiences may largely determine what their symptoms are. For example, children who are hypersensitive may react as though everything is too loud or too bright. These kids may have difficulty being in noisy rooms. They may also have adverse reactions to smells.

Sensory hypersensitivity may cause:

  • a low pain threshold

  • appearing clumsy
  • fleeing without regard to safety
  • covering eyes or ears frequently
  • picky food preferences or gagging when eating foods of certain textures
  • resisting hugs or sudden touches
  • feeling that soft touches are too hard
  • difficulty controlling their emotions
  • difficulty focusing attention
  • difficulty adapting response
  • behavior problems.

In contrast, children who are hyposensitive and experience reduced sensitivity crave interaction with the world around them. They may engage more with their surroundings to get more sensory feedback

In fact, this may make them appear hyperactive, when in reality, they may simply be trying to make their senses more engaged.

Sensory hyposensitivity may cause:

  • a high pain threshold
  • bumping into walls
  • touching things
  • putting things into their mouth
  • giving bear hugs
  • crashing into other people or things
  • not regarding personal space
  • rocking and swaying

What causes sensory issues in children?

It’s not clear what causes sensory issues in children, though researchers Trusted Source believe it may have something to do with the way the sensory pathways in the brain process and organize information. Sensory processing difficulties are common in autistic people.

It’s also not clear if sensory issues can occur on their own or if they are caused by another disorder. Some doctors and healthcare professionals believe sensory processing issues are a symptom of another issue rather than a diagnosis in itself.

According to a 2020 review and a small 2017 studyTrusted Source,sensory processing disorder may be related to prenatal or birth complications, which can include:

  • premature birth
  • low birth weight
  • parental stress
  • alcohol or drug consumption during pregnancy

Overexposure to certain chemicals and a lack of sensory stimulation in childhood may also be risk factors for developing sensory processing disorder.

Possible abnormal brain activity could change how the brain responds to senses and stimuli.

Are sensory issues part of another condition?

Many doctors don’t believe sensory issues on their own account for a separate disorder. But what is clear is that some people do have issues processing what they feel, see, smell, taste, or hear.

In most cases, sensory issues occur in children, but adults can experience them too. Many children with altered sensory processing are on the autism spectrum.

Conditions or disorders connected to sensory issues can include:

  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Autistic people may have changes to the neural pathways in their brain responsible for processing sensory information.
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHA affects the ability to filter out unnecessary sensory information, which can lead to sensory overload.
  • Schizophrenia. In people with schizophrenia,abnormal mechanisms in the brain’s sensory pathway and in the way it creates and organizes connections between neurons can cause altered sensory and motor processing.
  • Sleep disorders. Sleep disorders, such as sleep deprivation, may result in delirium, which can cause temporary sensory processing issues.
  • Developmental delay. Developmental delaysare also not uncommon in people with sensory issues.
  • Brain injury.Traumatic brain injury (TBI)may be another potential cause of sensory processing disorder, according to 2019 researchTrusted Source.

It’s important to note, however, that children with ADHD experience hyperactivity for a different reason than children who have sensory issues.

People who have ADHD may have trouble concentrating or sitting still. People with sensory issues may have trouble sitting still because they crave sensory interactions with the world around them, or are bothered by their environment.

How are sensory issues diagnosed?

Sensory processing disorder isn‘t an officially recognized neurological condition. This means there is no formal criteria for a diagnosis.

Instead, doctors, educators, or healthcare professionals who help children with issues processing sensory information work from what they see in the child’s behaviors and interactions to determine how to best support them. Generally, these sensory issues are highly visible.

In some cases, professionals may use questionnaires such as the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) or the Sensory Processing Measure (SPM). Both of these tests can help healthcare professionals and educators better understand a child’s sensory functioning.

Sometimes, a child’s doctor may be able to work with the child’s school psychologist or special education educator to help them access in-school supports like occupational therapy.